What Are Some Basic Terminologies In Architecture ? (PART-2)



1. Acanthus

A plant of the Mediterranean region whose serrated leaves were copied in stone to ornament Corinthian and Composite capitals; used also to decorate moldings and friezes.

2. Aedicule

A framing motif consisting of an entablature and pediment supported by two columns.

3. Aisle

A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers.

4. Altar

A table like structure for the celebration of the Sacraments in a Christian building; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity.

5. Ambulatory

A semicircular or polygonal passageway around the apse of a church.

6. Apse

A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church.

7. Anta

In Classical temples, the pilaster like projecting end of a portico wall often framing columns, which are then said to be in antis

8. Arcade

A series of arches supported on piers or columns. A “blind” arcade is a row of arches applied to the wall as an ornamental feature.

9. Arch`

A structural devise, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones (voussoirs) that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides.

10. Architrave

A square beam that is the lowest of the three horizontal components of a Classical entablature.

11. Archivolt

A molded band carried around an arch.

12. Arcuated

Any form of construction using arches.

13. Ashlar

Building stone that has been squared and finished, and the masonry constructed of such blocks.

14. Barrel Vault

A half-cylindrical vault, semicircular or pointed in cross section; also called tunnel vault.

15. Bay

A vertical compartment of a building in which several such compartments are repeated; each bay mignt be defined by columns, piers, windows, or vaulting units. Michelangelo Museo Capitolino is divided into 7 bays by pilasters.

16. Basilica

In ancient Roman architecture, a large rectangular building used as a tribunal or for other public purposes and generally arranged with nave, aisles, and one or more apses. In Christian architecture, a longitudinal church of related form.

17. Boss

Sculpted ornament of joints, found primarily in vaults.

18. Buttress

A projecting mass of masonry serving to provide additional strength for the wall as it resists the lateral thrust exerted by an arch or vault. Plying Buttress: in a church, a buttress in the form of an arch, or set of arches, that carries the thrust of a nave vault over the side aisle roofs down to a massive external pier.

19. Capital

The uppermost part of a column, usually shaped to articulate the joint with the lintel or arch supported; in Classical types, comprising an abacus, echinus, and other carved detail.

20. Caryatid

A sculpted female figure used as a support in place of a column or pier.

21. Cella

The body and main sanctuary of a Classical temple, as distinct from its portico and other external parts; sometimes used synonymously with naos, the principal room of a temple where the cult statue is housed.

22. Centering

Temporary wooden framework used to hold construction material in place until a vault or arch is self-sustaining.

23. Chancel

The eastern portion of a church set apart for the clergy, and often separated from the main body of the church by a screen, rail, or steps. The term is also used to describe the entire east end of a church beyond the crossing.

24. Chevet

A French term used to describe the developed east end of a church, usually a French Gothic cathedral, with its apse, ambulatory, and radiating chapels.

25. Choir

The part of a church, generally located toward or in the apse, reserved for clergy and singers.
(This photograph was taken looking down the nave toward the apse. The choir screen is highlighted, which is just beyond the transept.)

26. Clerestory

A part of a building that rises above adjoining roof-tops and is pierced by window openings to admit light to the interior.

27. Cloister

An open square court surrounded by a covered ambulatory, often archaded. It is generally attached to a church or monastery and is distinguished from a secular courtyard by its function as a lace of seclusion and repose.

28. Coffering

Recessed panels, square or polygonal, that ornament a vault, ceiling, or the underside (soffit) of an arch.

29. Colonnette

A small or greately attenuated, slender column.

30. Colossal/Giant Order

Columns or pilasters that rise through several stories; also called a Giant Order.

31. Column

A vertical, usually cylindrical, support, commonly consisting of a base, shaft, and capital; in Classical archtecture, its parts are governed by proportional rules.

32. Composite Order

One of the five Classical orders; favored in late Roman architecture. On the capital, large conjoined Ionic volutes are combined with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order.

33. Compound Pier

A pier with columns, shafts, and pilaters attached, sometimes in clusters, to its faces.

34. Corbel

A masonry block projecting from a wall to support a superincumbent element.

35. Corbeled Arch

Masonry constructed over a wall opening by a series of courses projecting from each side and stepped progressively further forward until they meet at midpoint; not a true arch.

36. Corinthian Order

The most richly embellished of the thre orders (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) developed by the Greeks, with a tall capital composed of a bell-shaped core (kalathoss) envelped by layers of acanthus leaves terminating in the corner volutes, surmounted by concave-sided abacus.

37. Cornice

The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall.

38. Crossing

The area where the nave and transept intersect in a cruciform church, frequently surmounted by a tower or dome.
(This tower is over the crossing).

39. Crypt

A vaulted space beneath the pavement of a church, often housing relics or tombs.

40. Diaphragm Arch

A transverse arch across the nave of a church partitioning the roof into sections.

41. Dipteral

Referring to a temple surrounded by a double range of columns.

42. Distyle in Antis

In a Classical temple referring to a portico with two columns between piers (antae) projecting from the cella walls.

43. Dome

A curved vault that is erected on a circular base and that is semicircular, pointed, or bulbous in section. If raised over a square or polygonal base transitional squinches or pendentives must be inserted at the corners of the base to transform it into a near circle.

44. Doric Order

The column and entablature developed on mainland Greece; the fluted columnar shaft is without a base; its capital is an abacus above a simple cushionlike molding (echinus). The entablature has a plain architrave, a frieze composd of metopes and triglyphs, and a cornice with projecting blocks (mutules). In Roman Doric, the colun is slimmer than the Greek prototype, is unfluted, and stands on a low base; the capital is smaller.

45. Drum

The cylindrical or polygonal wall supporting a dome.

One of the cylindrical sections comprsing the shaft of a column.

46. Dry Masonry

Masonry laid without mortar.

47. Echinus

A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form.

48. Engaged Column

A column attached to or appearing to be partly embedded wthin a wall.

49. Entablature

The upper part of a Classical order comprising architrave, frieze, and cornice.

50. Entasis

The slight swelling of the vertical profile of a Classical column as it tapers toward the top to counteract the illusion of concavity that accompanies straight-sided columns. (orange lines exaggerated)

51. Exedra

A semicircular recess or niche; a large apse.

52. Extrados

The upper surface of an arch or vault.

53. Facade

The principal exterior face of a building, usually the front.

54. Fluting

The shallow concave channels cut vertically into the shaft of a column or pilaster. In Doric columns, they meet in a sharp edge (arris); in Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite columns, they are separated by a narrow strip.

55. Frieze

A horizontal band, sometimes painted or decorated with sulpture or moldings. It may run along the upper portion of a wall just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a classical entablature that lies between the architrave and cornice. A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture.

56. Gable

A triangular element. It may be the end of a pitched roof framed by the sloping sides. It also refers to the top of a Gothic panel, or to the triangular area above the portals of a Gothic building.

57. Gallery

An upper story projecting from the interior wall of a building, or placed above the aisles of a church. It may function as a corridor or as an area for assembly or seating.

58. Groin Vault

A vault formed when two barrel vaults of identical size intersect at right angles (also called a cross vault).

59. Hall Church

A church in which the nave and aisles are the same height, giving the building the appearace of a great hall.

60. Impost

In a pier, the projecting molding at the springing of an arch. A rectangular impost block transmits the weight of an arch to a supporting member; it may appear between the capital of a column and the springing of an arch.

61. In Antis

The term used to describe columns placed between the ends of two walls, commonly projecting from the ends of the cella of a small Greek Temple.

62. Intrados

The undersurface (as opposed to extrados) of an arch (or vault); also called a soffit.

63. Intercolumnation

The space between adjacent colunms in a colonnade, frequently determined by some multiple of the diameter of the column itself.

64. Ionic Order

One of the five Classical Orders, the Ionic is characterized by a scroll-shaped (voluted) capital element, the presence of dentils in the cornice, and a frieze that mighta contain continuous relief ornament.

65. Keystone

The central voussoir at the top of a completed arch.

66. Lancet Window

A tall, slender window with a sharply pointed arch (like a lance), common in early Gothic architecture.

67. Lantern

A cylindrical or polygonal structure that crowns a dome, its base usually open to allow light to enter the area below.

68. Loggia

An arcade supported by piers or coluns, open on one side at least; either part of a building (as a porch) or a separate structure.

69. Lunette

A semicircular wall area, or opening, above a door or window; when above the portal of a church, often called a tympanum.

70. Martyrium

A struction, oftenof central plan, erectred on a site sacred to Christianity, symbolizing an act of martydom or marking the grave of a martyr who died for the faith.

71. Megaron

The principal hall of an Aegean dwelling, oblong in shape and formed with sloping sides and a flat top, with a passage leading to an underground burial chamber.

72. Melon Dome/Umbrella Dome

A dome subdivided into individual concave webs; sometimes called an umbrella dome.

73. Metope

In the frieze of a Doric order, the rectangular area between tryglyphs; often left plain but sometimes decorated with relief ornament.

74. Molding

A sculpted, ornamental band, carved with a distinctive profile or pattern; highly developed in Classical architecture.

75. Mullion

A slender upright dividing an opening, usually a window, into two or more sections.

76. Naos

The principal enclosed area of a Greek temple, containing the cult statue of god or goddess.

77. Narthex

A colonnaded porch in front of the facade of a church, in early Chrisian architectue often serving as the fourth side of an atrium; also a transverse vestibule preceding the church nave and aisles.

78. Nave

The central, longitudinal space of a basilican church, separated from the aisles or from side chaples, and extending from the main entrance to the transept or to the apse.

79. Niche

A concave recess in a wall, often used to house statuary.

80. Oculus

A round window.

81. Opisthodomos

The room at the rear of a Greek temple, behind the naos.

82. Order

A system for the forms and relationship of elements in the column and entablature of Classical architecture according to one of five modes: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (developed by the Greeks), and Tuscan and Composite (developed by the Romans).

83. Palladian Motif/Serliana

A triple opening formed by a central semicircular arch springing from the entablature of narrower flanking square-headed bays, used by architect Andrea Palladio. Also known as a Serliana because it was first illustrated in the architecture treatise of 1537 by Sebastiano Serlio.

84. Parapet

A low wall for protection at the edge of a balcony, terrace, roof, bridge, etc.

85. Pedestal

A supporting substructure for a column or statue.

86. Pediment

A triangular space formed by the raking cornices (sloping sides) and horizontal cornice of a gabled temple; also used above a door or window. If the apex or base is split, the pediment is described as broken.

87. Pendentive

An inverted, concave, triangular piece of masonry serving as the transition from a square support system to the circular base of a dome.

88. Peripteral

Pertaining to a building surrounded by a row of columns on all sides.

89. Piano Nobile

The principal reception and living area in an Italian palace, the first floor above the ground.

90. Piazza

The Italian term for a city square.

91. Pier

A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. When combined with pilasters, columns, or shafts, it is called a compound pier. Its proportions are far more variable than a Classical column. Pier is also the term used for the solid mass between windows, doors, and arches.

92. Pilaster

A column is flattened, rectangular shape, projecting slightly form the face of the wall.

93. Plinth

A generally square block forming the bottommost element of a column base; or the projecting lowest portion of a wall.

94. Podium

A massive platform on which an Etruscan, Roman, or other ancient building was sometimes placed.

95. Portico

An open, colonnaded, roofed space serving as a porch before the entrance to a building.

96. Post and Lintel

A system of construction in which two or more uprights support a horizontal beam; also called trabeated.

97. Pronaos

The porch in font of the cella of a Greek or Roman temple formed by the projection of the side walls and a range of columns between the projections.

98. Pylon

In ancient Egyptian architecture, the sloping, tower-like walls flanking the entrance to a temple.

99. Quoin

Large stone or block laid at the corner of a building (or at an opening) used either for reinforcement of the angle or for ornament.

100. Revetment

The facing of a surface, usually a wall, with stone for ornamentation or protection.
(Notice how the ornamental revetment is only on the facade and does not continue on the side surfaces.)

101. Rib

A slender, projecting arched member of a vault, used to facilitate its construction, reinforce its structure, or articulate its form in varying ways in Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic, Gothic, and Baroque architecture.

102. Rib Vault

An arched ceiling or roof supported or reinforced by ribs.

103. Rustication

Masonry with massive, strongly textured or rough-hew blocks and sharply sunk joints, distinguished form smooth ashlar.

104. Scotia

A concave molding used as the intermediate part of a base.

105. Shaft

The cylindrical body of a column between capital and base.

106. Spandrel

The triangular area between adjoining arches, or the triangualr area next to a single arch.

107. Spire

A tall pointed termination of a tower or roof.

108. Splay

The widening of windows, doorways, and other openings by slanting the sides.

109. Springing

The point from which an arch or vault springs or rises from its supports.

110. Squinch

A small arch, or sometimes a lintel, thrown across the angle of a square or polygon to make them more nearly round and thus able to recieve the circular base of a dome.

111. Stringcourse

A continuous, projecting horizontal course of masonry, ususally molded, running along, the surface of a wall, to mark an architectural subdivision.

112. Stylobate

The continuous platform of masonry on which a colonnade rests; the uppermost level of the stepped base (crepidoma) of a Greek temple.

113. Thrust

The outward force exerted by an arch or vault.

114. Torus

A large convex molding found principally at the base of a column.

115. Trabeated

An architectural system using a horizontal beam over supports, as opposed to an arched or arcuated system; synonymous with post and lintel.

116. Tracery

Ornamental intersecting stonework in Gothic windows, panels, and screen of Gothic buildings; also used on the surface of late Gothic vaults. Varied techniques and patterns are given names such as plate tracery (built up in corsed layers like the framing walls), bar tracery (constructed of complex fragments of the total pattern), flowing tracery (seemingly freehand, curvilinear design, though compass drawn), etc.

117. Transept

In a basilican church, the arm that crosses the nave at right angles, usually separating it from the apse; twin transept arms may also project from the nave without interrupting it.

118. Triforium

An arcaded wall passage in a Gothic nave wall, between the clerestory and the main arcade in a three-story elevation; in a four-story elevation, it appears between the gallery and the clerstory.

119. Triglyph

In a Doric frieze, the projecting block marked by vertical grooves (glyphs) between the rectangular areas known as metopes

120. Vault

An arched ceiling or roof made of stone, brick, or concrete (cf. barrel vault, fan vault).

121. Volute

Ornament in the form of a spiral scroll, and the principal feature of the Ionic capital.

122. Voussoir

A wedge-shaped stone used in the construction of an arch or vault.

123. Westwork

In a Carolingian or Romanesque church, the towerlike west end, often containing an entrance vestibule surmounted by a large room open to the nave

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