VERNACULAR AND TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF KASHMIR
Kashmir/ Srinagar has cold climate. It is much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. Winters are cool, with a January daily mean of 10.0 °C, and
temperature remains below freezing at night.
A number of building systems in various parts of Kashmir have developed over time to accommodate local natural and cultural factors, including the impact of earthquakes.These systems are not only part of the cultural heritage of Kashmir but also add to its beautiful landscape.
- The buildings were generally three to four floors high.
- The plans were generally square so that a minimum of external walls
were exposed and heat was conserved in the cold winter.
- Bay windows(dub) are present overlooking the river or main street.
- The dub is generally located on the southern side so that the sun was
available in winter.
2. THE PLAN
- The distribution of function is symmetrical, normally resulting into a division of the overall square in four parts.
- The staircase is usually placed at the center.
- The outer wall of the overall square is constructed as a heavy stone masonry wall, for both structural and climatic purposes.
- Lattice work screens and window shutters, profusely are some of the main architectural elements
associated with them.
3. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Taq consists of load-bearing masonry walls with horizontal timbers embedded in them. Composite system of building construction with a modular layout of load-bearing masonry piers and window bays tied together with ladder-like constructions of horizontal timbers embedded in the masonry walls at each floor level and window lintel level. They serve to hold the masonry walls together and tie them to the
floors. These horizontal timbers tie the masonry in the walls together, thus confining the brick mud or rubble stone of the wall by resisting the propagation of cracks. The masonry piers are almost always 1 to 2 feet square and the window bay/alcove (taqshe) 3 to 4 feet in width.
The dhajji-dewari construction is based on a braced timber framed structural system, in which normally 4-9 inch thick brick or stone masonry is used to infill the gaps. Dhajji buildings are typically 1-4 floors tall
and the roof may be a flat timber and mud roof, or a pitched roof with timber/metal sheeting. The floors of these houses are made with timber beams that span between walls.Timber floor boards, which span over the floor beams, would traditionally be overlain by a layer of clay (or mud).
Openings- Maximum 3′ span openings in South-West direction
Wall Finish- White wash, mud plaster,cow dung plaster.
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
Himachal Pradesh extends from the plains of Punjab and Haryana to the snow
mountains separating from ladakh.Developmental activities in traditional settlements are generally carried
out with due consideration to context and buildings are generally constructed along the contours to reduce cutting and filling of slopes.Vernacular buildings are clustered along the open space which are mostly rectangular in shape and floor to ceiling height is usually kept in between 8 to 9 feet.
- Ground floor is used for storage.
- First floor is projected out with verandah on all the sides.
- Houses are usually constructed in kath- kona or dhajji wall style with alternate layers of timber and stone.
- Window openings are minimum.
2. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
kath-kuni wall is made by laying apart two square section wooden wall beams longitudinally parallel to each other to define the width of the wall.These are lap-jointed or nailed by the cross joist. The whole frame work done is known as cheol. With inherent elasticity, the design has an enormous seismic response.
DHAJJI WALL CONSTRUCTION
Basic elements in these buildings are the load bearing masonry piers and infill walls.There are wooden tie-bands at each floor level. Foundation consists of rubble masonry Infill materials are usually abode bricks bonded with mud mortar. Wooden bands tie the walls of the structure with the floors and also impart ductility to a structure that is otherwise brittle. Wooden beams tie the whole house together and ensure that the entire building sway together as one unit in an earthquake.
CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS
Floors are made over rammed earth toppled by layer of small boulders soling and then finished by a mud layer. A cow dung wash is given periodically to avoid dust due to abrasion while walking. Upper floor is made up of wooden panels or bamboo supported on wooden beam. Upper floors are also finished by mud and cow dung.